Lei Fu

A group led by Prof. Lei Fu at Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

  • We focus on the atomic manufacturing and assembling of advanced materials.
  • We develop the innovative liquid metal reaction system.
  • We aim to offer on-demand material synthesis toward electronics and energy devices.
  • We welcome collaborators with different backgrounds to join our research.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been one of the most extensively studied classes of materials due to the wealth of unusual physical phenomena that occur when charge and heat transport is confined to a plane. The reliable synthesis of uniform single- and few-layer 2D materials is an essential first step for characterizing the layer-dependent changes in their properties, as well as providing pathways for their integration into a multitude of applications.

(1) Our group developed the liquid metal chemical vapor deposition (LMCVD) strategy to achieve the precise assembly of the atoms, leading to the accurate atomic fabrication of 2D materials and their heterostructures.

(2) We also devote ourselves to the exploration of new properties and unique behaviors in the 2D materials and liquid metal, such as the smart response to the environmental stimulus, energy conversion, self-healing and other quasi-biological effects.

(3) We look forward to opening the new territory in the 2D materials and liquid metal and offering new concept to understand these new life forms.

Emerging applications based on 2D materials and liquid metal are just at the best stage and will continuously bring new breakthroughs.

Paper more
  • (Highlight) Bandgap Tuning of Two-Dimensional Materials by Sphere Diameter Engineering
    Mengqi Zeng#, Jinxin Liu#, Lu Zhou, Rafael G. Mendes, Yongqi Dong, Min-Ye Zhang, Zhi-Hao Cui, Zhonghou Cai, Zhan Zhang, Daming Zhu, Tieying Yang, Xiaolong Li, Jianqiang Wang, Liang Zhao, Guoxian Chen, Hong Jiang, Mark H. Rümmeli, Hua Zhou*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 25 February 2020

    Developing a precise and reproducible bandgap-tuning method that enables tailored design of materials is of crucial importance for optoelectronic devices. Toward this end, we report a sphere diameter engineering (SDE) technique to manipulate the bandgap of two-dimensional materials. This SDE technique showing good precision, uniformity, and reproducibility with high efficiency may further accelerate the potential applications of 2D materials.

  • Facet Engineering of Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Materials
    Linyang Li#, Yabei Xia#, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 4 August 2022

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the facet engineering of 2D materials, ranging from a basic understanding of facets and the corresponding approaches and the significance of facet engineering. We also propose current challenges and forecast future development directions including the establishment of a facet database, the fabrication of new 2D materials, the design of specific substrates, and the introduction of theoretical calculations and in situ characterization techniques. This review can guide researchers to design ultrathin 2D materials with unique and distinct facets and provide an insight into the applications of energy, magnetism, optics, biomedicine, and other fields.

  • Chemical Insights into Two-Dimensional Quantum Materials
    Jinglu Liu#, Yiran Ding#, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 18 May 2022

    It is crucial to understand and conclude the process of 2D material design and synthesis from chemical insights to further research the intrinsic quantum physics and better explore potential properties and applications of 2D quantum materials. In this review, we first summarize the recent advance of 2D quantum phenomena, then give the universal design paradigm from two aspects: element-dependence and phase-dependence, at last we propose different synthesis resolutions. We also summarize the challenges in this area and put forward feasible solution.

  • Emerging Liquid Metal Biomaterials: From Design to Application
    Luyang Wang, Runze Lai, Lichen Zhang, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 9 May 2022

    Liquid metals (LMs) with good biosafety, deformability, functionalizability and stimulus responsiveness have great potential in biomedicine. In this review, the advantages of LMs are presented. Recent advances in the design and application of LM-based biomaterials are comprehensively summarized to provide deep insights into structure-property relationships and guide their on-demand design and performance optimization for therapeutics, bioimaging, biosensors, and tissue repair.

  • Dual Self-Built Gating Boost Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
    Xiaohui Zhu#, Chenyang Wang#, Tingli Wang#, Haihui Lan, Yu Ding, Hu Shi, Lisi Liu, Haiwen Shi, Luyang Wang, Huiliu Wang, Yiran Ding, Yingshuang Fu, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 27 Apirl 2022

    We report a design strategy, namely “dual self-built gating” to boost hydrogen evolution reaction. Taking ReS2 and WS2 as an example, the dual self-built gating induces electrons from WS2 to ReS2 directionally. The tailored electronic structure can balance the adsorption of intermediates and desorption of hydrogen synergistically, thus greatly promoting the intrinsic activity of active sites.

  • The Universal Growth of Ultrathin Perovskite Single Crystals
    Linyi Li#, Yantao Yu#, Peng Li, Jinxin Liu, Lihan Liang, Luyang Wang, Yu Ding, Xiaocang Han, Jiamin Ji, Shengli Chen, Dehui Li, Pan Liu, Shunping Zhang, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 20 March 2022

    The universal growth of ultrathin perovskite single crystals is realized by designing an oriented solvent microenvironment induced by the interfacial electric field originated from the charge separation between solid and liquid phases. Such a strategy can fabricate a wide range of high-quality ultrathin perovskites single crystals, from layered to non-layered, organic to inorganic, and toxic to low-toxic lead-free perovskite. Notably, the realization of high quality and diversity of ultrathin perovskites will facilitate both fundamental studies and optoelectronic applications.

  • Selective Antisite Defect Formation in WS2 Monolayers via Reactive Growth on Dilute W-Au Alloy Substrates
    Kai Wang, Lizhi Zhang, Giang D. Nguyen, Xiahan Sang, Chenze Liu, Yiling Yu, Wonhee Ko, Raymond R. Unocic, Alexander A. Puretzky, Christopher M. Rouleau, David B. Geohegan, Lei Fu, Gerd Duscher, An-Ping Li, Mina Yoon, Kai Xiao* First Pubulished: 19 November 2021

    We present an Au-assisted chemical vapor deposition approach to selectively form SW and S2W antisite defects, whereby one or two sulfur atoms substitute for a tungsten atom in WS2 monolayers. Guided by first-principles calculations, they describe a new method that can maintain tungsten-poor growth conditions relative to sulfur via the low solubility of W atoms in a gold/W alloy, thereby significantly reducing the formation energy of the antisite defects during the growth of WS2.

  • Ultrafast Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformation from MOF to 2D Hydroxide
    Wenjie Wang#, Yao Wang#, Runze He, Xiaozheng Wang, Zheng Shen, Xiaocang Han, Alicja Bachmatiuk, Wen Wen, Mark H. Rümmeli, Pan Liu, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 26 November 2021

    We demonstrated that single crystallinity can be totally maintained even through dramatic structural changes, which only requires several seconds. Ultrathin 2D single crystals can be obtained by our strategy, which is difficult for traditional methods. This discovery illustrates the possibility of transforming from 3D frameworks to 2D inorganic single crystals, vastly expanding the research scope of the SCSC transformation.

  • Bidirectional and Reversible Tuning of the Interlayer Spacing of Two-Dimensional Materials
    Yiran Ding#, Mengqi Zeng#, Qijing Zheng, Jiaqian Zhang, Ding Xu, Weiyin Chen, Chenyang Wang, Shulin Chen, Yingying Xie, Yu Ding, Shuting Zheng, Jin Zhao, Peng Gao, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 7 October 2021

    We report the preparation of 2D materials with tunable interlayer spacing by introducing active sites (Ce ions) in 2D materials to capture and immobilize Pt single atoms. The strong chemical interaction between active sites and Pt atoms contributes to the intercalation behavior of Pt atoms in the interlayer of 2D materials and further promotes the formation of chemical bonding between Pt atom and host materials. Taking cerium-embedded molybdenum disulfide as an example, intercalation of Pt atoms enables interlayer distance tuning via an electrochemical protocol, leading to interlayer spacing reversible and linear compression and expansion.

  • General Synthesis of 2D Rare-Earth Oxides Single Crystals with Tailorable Facet
    Linyang Li#, Fangyun Lu#, Wenqi Xiong, Yu Ding, Yangyi Lu, Yao Xiao, Xin Tong, Yao Wang, Shuangfeng Jia, Jianbo Wang, Rafael G. Mendes, Mark H. Rümmeli, Shengjun Yuan, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 26 August 2021

    We achieved the synthesis of a wide variety of high-quality 2D rare-earth oxides (REO) single crystals with tailorable facets via designing a hard-soft-acid-base couple. Also, the facet-related magnetic properties of 2D REO single crystals were revealed. Our approach provides a foundation for further exploring other facet-dependent properties and various applications of 2D REO and an inspiration for the precise growth of other non-layered 2D materials as well.

  • A Liquid Metal Reaction System for Advanced Material Manufacturing
    Mengqi Zeng#, Linyang Li#, Xiaohui Zhu, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 26 July 2021

    This Account aims to focus on the controllable fabrication of 2D materials and functional composite materials by liquid metals. Based on the characteristics of the surface layering and solidification, and excellent fluidity, the self-limited growth and ordered arrangement of 2D materials on liquid metal surfaces can be achieved, which enriches the material structures and leads to new properties.

  • Liquid Metals: A Novel Possibility of Fabricating Two-Dimensional Metal Oxides
    Shasha Zhao#, Jiaqian Zhang#, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 26 November 2020

    Recent Advances in the fabrication of 2DMOs via liquid metals are comprehensively reviewed. The introduction of progress in fabricating 2DMOs by virtue of the features of liquid metals improves diversity in the developments and applications of 2DMOs. The current challenges concerning the fabrication of 2DMOs are discussed to promote future research.

  • Surface Chemistry of Gallium-Based Liquid Metals
    Yiran Ding#, Mengqi Zeng#, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 5 November 2020

    The surface of liquid metals plays a critical role in establishing thermodynamic equilibria (both mass and energy) at the interface between liquid metal and air. The exploration on the surface structure and electronic property of liquid metals triggers a new field of liquid metal surface chemistry system, which is indispensable for researching scientific phenomena and developing practical technologies.

  • Universal Growth of Ultra-Thin III-V Semiconductor Single Crystals
    Yunxu Chen#, Jinxin Liu#, Mengqi Zeng#, Fangyun Lu, Tianrui Lv, Yuan Chang, Haihui Lan, Bin Wei, Rong Sun, Junfeng Gao, Zhongchang Wang, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 8 August 2020

    Ultra-thin III–V semiconductors, which exhibit intriguing characteristics, such as two-dimensional (2D) electron gas, enhanced electron-hole interaction strength, and strongly polarized light emission, have always been anticipated in future electronics. We report the growth of a majority of ultra-thin III–V single crystals, ranging from ultra-narrow to wide bandgap semiconductors, through enhancing the interfacial interaction between the III–V crystals and the growth substrates to proceed the 2D layer-by-layer growth mode.

  • Moiré is More: Access to New Properties of Two-Dimensional Layered Materials
    Yao Xiao#, Jinglu Liu#, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 28 July 2020

    With periodic moiré patterns, moiré superlattices can induce structural altering and band transformations, resulting in new phenomena including moiré phonons, moiré exitons, topological phase transition, unconventional superconducting or Mott insulating. The review will introduce the origin and the modulation of moiré superlattices, and summarize several series of new properties discovered in 2D layered materials.

  • Ultrathin High-κ Antimony Oxide Single Crystals
    Kena Yang#, Tao Zhang#, Bin Wei#, Yijia Bai#, Shuangfeng Jia, Guanghui Cao, Renhui Jiang, Chunbo Zhang, Enlai Gao, Xuejiao Chang, Juntao Li, Simo Li, Daming Zhu, Renzhong Tai, Hua Zhou, Jianbo Wang, Mengqi Zeng, Zhongchang Wang*, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 19 May 2020

    The ultrathin oxide nanosheets obtained through previous approaches usually exhibit amorphism or polycrystallinity, which limit their properties towards electronic devices. Here, we synthesize ultrathin antimony oxide single crystals with high dielectric constant (~100) and large breakdown voltage (~5.7 GV m−1).

  • Touch-Ablation of Lithium Dendrites via Liquid Metal for High-Rate and Long-Lived Batteries
    Wenjie Wang#, Xiaohui Zhu#, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 21 May 2020

    A Ga-based defense layer (GDL) was proposed to protect lithium anodes during long-term cycling by touch-ablation of dendrites. Once dendrites pierce into the GDL, liquid metal will be activated to eliminate uneven deposited Li, stopping upward growth of dendrites. Embrittlement phenomenon, for the first time, was used to suppress dendrites.

  • Phase Engineering of High-Entropy Alloys
    Xuejiao Chang#, Mengqi Zeng#, Keli Liu, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 26 February 2020

    Phase engineering of high-entropy alloys is comprehensively reviewed. HEAs with rich constituent elements exhibit many remarkable properties which are greatly influenced by phase structure. For further exploring the property of HEAs, the controllable synthesis with desired phases is highly required. The diverse phase structures, phase tuning strategies, and property adjusting of phase-engineered HEAs will be presented and discussed in depth.

  • A Bright Future for Liquid Functional Materials?
    ​Yiran Ding#, Mengqi Zeng#, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 06 November 2019

    While immersed in science fiction movies and novels, we marvel at the wild imagination. In fact, there are certain scientific principles in these artistic representations. Liquid functional materials open up new perspectives for our understanding of this fluid world. This opinion briefly discussed the fact that liquid functional materials offer unlimited possibilities, including preparation of new materials, biomedicine, self-healing, sensing, artificial intelligence, etc., in a variety of frontier fields.

  • Molecular Scaffold Growth of Two-Dimensional Strong-Interlayer-Bonding Layered Materials
    Mengqi Zeng#, Yunxu Chen#, Enze Zhang, Jiaxu Li, Rafael G. Mendes, Xiahan Sang, Shulin Luo, Wenmei Ming, Yuhao Fu, Mao-Hua Du, Lijun Zhang, David S. Parker, Raymond R. Unocic, Kai Xiao, Chenglai Wang, Tao Zhang, Yao Xiao, Mark H. Rümmeli, Faxian Xiu, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 05 March 2019

    We present a precise bottom-up synthesis strategy for obtaining 2D ultrathin interlayer-bonding-layered single crystals via the design of a molecular scaffold. We took Mo2GaC, a typical kind of MAX phase, as an example. We preset a precise molecular scaffold-an ultrathin crystalline Ga2O3 layer-to achieve a confined chemical reaction. Based on a designed molecular scaffold, the ultrathin Mo2GaC single crystals can be obtained during a chemical vapor deposition process.

Cover more
  • Controllable Growth of Graphene on Liquid Surfaces
    Jinxin Liu, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 09 December 2018

    The exciting progress in controlled growth, etching, self-assembly, and delivery of graphene on a liquid surface can be achieved, promoting its future industrial applications. The poem in the cover translates as “The pools in south China are suitable for gathering lotus. How dense and flourishing are the lotus leaves!” The lotus leaves floating in the pools represent graphene single crystals grown on liquid substrates.

  • Disassembly of Two-Dimensional Vertical Heterostructures
    Yao Xiao, Tao Zhang, Mengyue Zhou, Zheng Weng, Xuejiao Chang, Kena Yang, Jinglu Liu, Juntao Li, Bin Wei, Zhongchang Wang, Lei Fu*
    First Published: 20 November 2018

    We demonstrate the disassembly of 2D vertical heterostructures with the activation of specific disassembly promoters (DPs) and the weakening of the interlayer van der Waals interaction, which initially establishes the inverse process to 2D material assembly. The unique disassembly process has remarkable prospects toward the modification and functionalization of 2D materials, which opens up a novel pathway to functionally integrated devices.

  • Growth of 2D GaN Single Crystals on Liquid Metals
    Yunxu Chen#, Keli Liu#, Jinxin Liu, Tianrui Lv, Bin Wei, Tao Zhang, Mengqi Zeng, Zhongchang Wang, Lei Fu*
    First Published: 31 October 2018

    The two-dimensional (2D) GaN single crystals can be grown on liquid metals with urea as precursors via a surface-confined nitridation reaction strategy, which can pave the way to further explore the electronic and optical properties of GaN in the 2D limit.

  • Self-Adapting Wettability of ReS2 under a Constant Stimulus
    Wenjie Wang#, Jiaqian Zhang#, Qin Zhang#, Siyu Wan, Xiaohui Zhu, Qiqi Zhang, Wanying Wang, Yujing Zhang, Yongjun Liu, Lei Fu*
    First Published: 25 September 2018

    Lei Fu and co-workers enforce a smart self-adapting wettability (SAQ) of ReS2 under sustained light irradiation, which breaks the stereotype that a single stimulus leads to a monotonic change in properties or structure. This unique SAW provides a brand-new insight to broaden the applications of responsive materials, which will undoubtedly pave a novel way in further device optimization.

  • Controllable Fabrication of Graphene and Related Two-Dimensional Materials on Liquid Metals via Chemical Vapor Deposition
    Mengqi Zeng, Lei Fu*
    First Published: 17 September 2018

    A change of the metal catalyst in the physical state from the traditional solid to liquid brings about a qualitative change and improvement in the controllable fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) materials. The unique self-limited growth, self-assembly, and sliding transfer behaviors of 2D materials on liquid metals are fully exhibited.

Book more
  • Graphene from Basics to Applications
    Chapter 2, "preparation of graphene", 70 Pages
    Chemical Industry Press, edited by Yunqi Liu et al., published in 2017

    This book presents an overview of graphene from rationale to applications, including basic concepts, theories, and principles. Hereinto, preparation methods, growth mechanisms, condensed matter structures, and graphene chemistry are described in detail. The book emphasizes electrical, optical and magnetic properties of graphene. Subsequently, the prospects and challenges of graphene in composite materials, energy materials, and industrial applications are systematically introduced. This book can be used as reference for senior undergraduates, postgraduates, and institute researchers in the fields of chemistry, materials, physics, and information.

  • Graphene: Fundamentals and Emergent Applications
    English version @ Elsevier, 369 Pages
    Science Press, translated by LAN, published in 2015

    Graphene is an ideal two-dimensional atomic crystal composed of monolayer carbon atoms, which has broad application prospects in the novel electronic devices, such as nanoelectronic devices, integrated circuits, flexible electronic devices, and ultra-sensitive sensors. This book covers the structure, physicochemical properties, preparation techniques, characterization methods and potential applications of graphene. This book can be used as an introductory book for researchers working on graphene research, especially for beginners.

  • The Inheritance and Innovation of Chemistry
    Invited essay, 7 Pages
    Science Press, edited by The Chinese Chemical Society, Published in 2013

    The book is aimed to commemorate the establishment of the chemistry prize of the youth for 30 years. The winners of the chemistry prize of the youth set a good example for young chemists. This book has included the speeches of 48 winners during the period from the year of establishment to 2012, where we can appreciate the growth process of a generation of chemical people. Also, we can learn the contribution of scientific research and innovation by these prize-winners as well as the enlightenment, experience and realization from practice. In addition, expectations and messages to the young scholars are included in this book.

Prof. Dr. Lei Fu
邮箱 leifu@whu.edu.cn
链接 about Prof. Fu CV

A/Prof. Dr. Mengqi Zeng
邮箱 zengmq_lan@whu.edu.cn
链接 CV

Honored Students
  1. "Nano Star" of LAN

  2. Wenjie Wang (2018); Tao Zhang, Mengqi Zeng (2016); Qin Zhang, Lei Fu (2015); Lifang Tan, Mengqi Zeng (2014); Jiao Wang (2013)

  3. "Hall of Fame" of Wuhan University

  4. Qin Zhang (2018), Mengqi Zeng (2017)

  5. "Academic Star" of Wuhan University

  6. Qin Zhang (2018), Mengqi Zeng (2015)

  7. Grand Prize of National "Challenge Cup"

  8. Chenxiao Wang, Xiaoyang Liang, Qiqi Zhang, Min Ju, Junlai Zuo, Ding Xu, Weiyin Chen, Zemian Ren (2017)

  9. National Scholarship (Postgraduate)

  10. Wenjie Wang, Luyang Wang (2019); Mengqi Zeng, Yao Xiao (2017); Lei Fu (2016); Lifang Tan, Tao Zhang (2015); Mengqi Zeng (2014)


We now can successfully synthesize various kinds of high-quality 2D atomic crystals with their property from semi-conductors, semi-metals, metals and superconductors. Many of them also exhibit wonderful magnetic and pyroelectric properties. The typical ones are listed as follows:

(1) Graphene and some other single element Xene, such as 2D Sb, Mo.

(2) Transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, WS2, WSe2, WTe2, ReS2, etc.

(3) Transition metal carbides, such as WC, Mo2C, etc.

(4) Metal oxides, such as SbO2, HfO2, etc.

(5) Metal phosphides, such as MoP, MnP, SnP, etc.

(6) III-V composites, such as BN, GaN, GaP, InSb, etc.

(7) Rare earth composites, such as CeO2, La2O3, etc.

(8) 2D heterostructures, such as Graphene/h-BN, MoS2/h-BN, WS2/ReS2, WC-Graphene, Mo2C-Graphene, etc.

(9) 2D high-entropy alloy.

We have explored some of them in the application of electronics, optoelectronics, energy conversion and storage devices, stimuli-responsive smart devices. We believe this is just the tip of the iceberg and looking forward to the cooperation with the experts in all possible new material related fields.


There are currently Postdoctoral positions available in our group, with joint support from Wuhan University and Sino-German Center for Research Promotion. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Development of controllable CVD methods for wafer-scale 2D atomic crystals and their heterostructures;

(2) Theoretical calculation and simulation of structure and property for 2D atomic crystals;

(3) Electronic, transport, optical and catalytic properties of 2D atomic crystals and their heterostructures;

(4) Novel applications in energy devices and flexible electronics;

Please send (1) a CV, (2) three representative publications over the past five years to Prof. Fu by email: leifu@whu.edu.cn.


Prof. Dr. Lei Fu
College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences,
The Institute For Advanced Studies,
Wuhan University
Wuhan 430072, China