A group led by Prof. Lei Fu at Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

  • We focus on the atomic manufacturing and assembling of advanced materials.
  • We develop the innovative liquid metal reaction system.
  • We aim to offer on-demand material synthesis toward electronics and energy devices.
  • We welcome collaborators with different backgrounds to join our research.

Atoms are the smallest building blocks of matter. Under the basic quantized physical and chemical framework, through the guidance of atoms in the preparation process, it is theoretically possible to prepare new materials, construct efficient devices and create advanced systems. This is a kind of extreme atomic scale manufacturing technology, namely atomic fabrication. Atomic fabrication enables the customization of the structure and properties of materials on demand, which will promote technological change in the field of material science.

(1) Our group developed the liquid metal chemical vapor deposition (LMCVD) strategy to achieve the precise assembly of the atoms, leading to the accurate atomic fabrication of 2D materials and their heterostructures.

(2) We also devote ourselves to the exploration of new properties and unique behaviors in the 2D materials and liquid metal, such as the smart response to the environmental stimulus, energy conversion, self-healing and other quasi-biological effects.

(3) We look forward to opening the new territory in the 2D materials and liquid metal and offering new concept to understand these new life forms. Emerging applications based on 2D materials and liquid metal are just at the best stage and will continuously bring new breakthroughs.

Paper more
  • (Highlight) Liquid Metal for High-Entropy Alloy Nanoparticles Synthesis
    Guanghui Cao#, Jingjing Liang#, Zenglong Guo#, Kenan Yang#, Gang Wang, Huiliu Wang, Xuhao Wan, Zeyuan Li, Yijia Bai, Yile Zhang, Junlin Liu, Yanpeng Feng, Zhenying Zheng, Cai Lu, Guangzhi He, Zeyou Xiong, Ze Liu, Shengli Chen, Yuzheng Guo*, Mengqi Zeng*, Junhao Lin*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 14 June 2023

    High-entropy alloy nanoparticles (HEA-NPs) show great potential as functional materials. However, thus far, the realized high-entropy alloys have been restricted to palettes of similar elements, which greatly hinders the material design, property optimization and mechanistic exploration for different applications. Herein, we discovered that liquid metal endowing negative mixing enthalpy with other elements could provide a stable thermodynamic condition and act as a desirable dynamic mixing reservoir, thus realizing the synthesis of HEA-NPs with a diverse range of metal elements in mild reaction conditions. The involved elements have a wide range of atomic radii and melting points. We also realized the precisely fabricated structures of nanoparticles via mixing enthalpy tuning.

  • (Highlight) Bandgap Tuning of Two-Dimensional Materials by Sphere Diameter Engineering
    Mengqi Zeng#, Jinxin Liu#, Lu Zhou, Rafael G. Mendes, Yongqi Dong, Min-Ye Zhang, Zhi-Hao Cui, Zhonghou Cai, Zhan Zhang, Daming Zhu, Tieying Yang, Xiaolong Li, Jianqiang Wang, Liang Zhao, Guoxian Chen, Hong Jiang, Mark H. Rümmeli, Hua Zhou*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 25 February 2020

    Developing a precise and reproducible bandgap-tuning method that enables tailored design of materials is of crucial importance for optoelectronic devices. Toward this end, we report a sphere diameter engineering (SDE) technique to manipulate the bandgap of two-dimensional materials. This SDE technique showing good precision, uniformity, and reproducibility with high efficiency may further accelerate the potential applications of 2D materials.

  • Controllable Synthesis of High-Entropy Alloys
    Jingjing Liang#, Guanghui Cao#, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: May 13 2024

    In this review, a comprehensive overview of the controllable synthesis of HEAs is provided, ranging from composition design to morphology control, structure construction, and surface/interface engineering. The fundamental parameters and advanced characterization related to HEAs are introduced. We also propose several critical directions for future development. This review can provide insight and an in-depth understanding of HEAs, accelerating the synthesis of the desired HEAs.

  • Synthesis of Ultrathin High-Entropy Oxides with Phase Controllability
    Jingjing Liang#, Junlin Liu#, Huiliu Wang, Zeyuan Li, Guanghui Cao, Ziyue Zeng, Sheng Liu, Yuzheng Guo, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 5 March 2024

    The self-lattice-framework with mixing assistor guided strategy was proposed for synthesizing ultrathin high-entropy oxides with the desired phase structures. Natural bonding preference constructed the basis of the lattice framework, and the Ga assistor promoted multiple elements into the lattice site to form the high-entropy state. The glucose and glycine were utilized to generate the carbon template for guiding the morphology. This work lays the foundation for applications of high-entropy oxides and inspires a similar methodology to explore high-entropy compounds.

  • Highlights of Research Activities in Advanced Materials at Wuhan University
    Lei Fu*, Zhengyou Liu* First Pubulished: 24 February 2024

    This special issue of Advanced Materials features 31 high-quality papers to commemorate Wuhan University’s 130th anniversary. These reviews and research articles contributed by the faculty of Wuhan University cover a broad scope of materials science. This issue not only signifies the rapid growth of research in materials at Wuhan University but also exemplifies the institution’s ongoing interdisciplinary pursuits.

  • Interlayer Bi-Atomic Pair Bridging the van der Waals Gap for 100% Activation of Two-Dimensional Layered Material
    Chenyang Wang#, Wenxuan Yang#, Yiran Ding#, Pengfei Bai#, Ziyue Zeng, Haifeng Lv, Xiang Li, Huiliu Wang, Zhouyang Wang, Mengqi Zeng*, Xiaojun Wu*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 25 January 2024

    We report a strategy to achieve 100% activation of atoms on the basal plane of 2D layered materials by constructing an interlayer bi-atomic bridge. New gap states at the Fermi level are introduced and interlayer conductivity is enhanced in this catalyst. Exposed basal plane atoms are optimized to a state favorable for adsorbing catalytic intermediates.

  • Ultra-Wettable Liquid Metal Interface for Highly Durable Solid-State Lithium Batteries
    Chenyang Wang#, Ziyue Zeng#, Peimeng Qiu, Peng Li, Shurun Chen, Shengli Chen, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 2 February 2024

    We presented a new concept to alter the lithiophobic nature of solid electrolytes through the creation of an ultra-wettable interface utilizing liquid metal. It can accomplish sufficient and intimate interface contact between solid electrolyte and Li metal without void formation at the atomic scale, thus promoting the diffusion of Li+ at the interface. The solid-state batteries exhibit superior cycling stability and rate performance without dendrite growth.

  • Ultrathin van der Waals Lanthanum Oxychloride Dielectric for Two-Dimensional Field-Effect Transistors
    Linyang Li#, Weiqi Dang#, Xiaofei Zhu#, Haihui Lan, Yiran Ding, Zhu-An Li, Luyang Wang, Yuekun Yang, Lei Fu*, Feng Miao*, Mengqi Zeng* First Pubulished: 8 December 2023

    The vdW LaOCl single-crystal dielectric was synthesized by precisely controlling the growth kinetics. Due to the considerable dielectric properties of LaOCl and its dangling-bond-free and atomically smooth surface, the MoS2 FET with vdW LaOCl dielectric exhibits ultralow hysteresis. These results greatly verified vdW LaOCl single crystal possesses the tremendous potential to act as an ideal gate dielectric for 2D FETs.

  • 2D Quasi-Layered Material with Domino Structure
    Haihui Lan#, Luyang Wang#, Runze He#, Shuyi Huang#, Jinqiu Yu, Jinming Guo, Jingrui Luo, Yiling Li, Jinyang Zhang, Jiaxin Lin, Shunping Zhang, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 9 November 2023

    We report a material system that differentiates from layered and non-layered materials, termed quasi-layered domino-structured (QLDS) materials, effectively bridging the gap between these two typical categories. Considering the skewed structure, the force orthogonal to the 2D QLDS-GaTe growth plane constitutes a synergistic blend of vdW forces and covalent bonds, with neither of them being perpendicular to the 2D growth plane. This unique amalgamation results in a force that surpasses that in layered materials, yet is weaker than that in non-layered materials.

  • Atomic Manufacturing of Advanced Nanomaterials
    Yiran Ding#, Chenyang Wang#, Mengqi Zeng, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 15 September 2023

    Atomic manufacturing is a guideline for researchers to precisely synthesize materials, customize their properties and apply them into advanced applications in demand. Atomic manufacturing has the ability to visualize substances at the atomic level, while manipulating them atom by atom, inducing and promoting chemical reactions, and ultimately obtaining products with specific atomic structures.

  • Rational Designs of Biomaterials for Combating Oral Biofilm Infections
    Zhengrong Yin#, Yaxi Liu#, Annikaer Anniwaer, Yuan You, Jingmei Guo, Ying Tang, Lei Fu, Luyao Yi*, Cui Huang* First Pubulished: 11 August 2023

    Intractable oral biofilms are the chief culprits of both dental infections and systemic inflammation, posing a great threat to human health. In this review, core strategies of recently developed biomaterials in eradicating oral biofilm are present. Furthermore, design rationales of biomaterials with advanced antibiofilm capacity, as well as versatile antibiofilm biomaterials with other functions are comprehensively summarized.

  • Monolayer High-Entropy Layered Hydroxide Frame for Efficient Oxygen Evolution Reaction
    Yiran Ding#, Zhouyang Wang#, Zijia Liang#, Xueping Sun, Zihang Sun, Yuanxin Zhao, Junlin Liu, Chenyang Wang, Ziyue Zeng, Lei Fu, Mengqi Zeng*, Lin Tang* First Pubulished: 3 June 2023

    We present a universal synthesis of monolayer HELH frame in a mild environment, regardless of the solubility product limit. Mild reaction conditions allow us to precisely control the fine structure and elemental composition of the final product. The high-entropy engineering and fine nanostructure control open opportunities to solve the problems of low intrinsic activity, very few active sites, instability, low conductance during OER for LDH catalysts.

  • Curvature Geometry in 2D Materials
    Nan Wei, Yiran Ding, Jiaqian Zhang, Linyi Li, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 18 May 2023

    Curvature engineering offers a new tuning freedom beyond the thoroughly studied layer number, grain boundaries, stack, etc. The precise control of the curvature geometry in 2D materials can redefine this material family. Special attention will be given to this emerging field and highlight the possible future directions. With the step-by-step achievement in understanding the curvature engineering effect in 2D materials and establishing reliable delicate curvature controlling strategies, a brand-new era of 2D materials research should be developed.

  • Room-Temperature Magnetism in Two-Dimensional MnGa4-H Induced by Hydrogen Insertion
    Nan Wei#, Liangcheng He#, Changwei Wu#, Dabiao Lu, Ruohan Li, Haiwen Shi, Haihui Lan, Yao Wen, Jun He, Youwen Long*, Xiao Wang*, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 3 March 2023

    We develop a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method to construct the 2D room-temperature magnetic MnGa4-H crystal with a thickness down to 2.2 nm. Hydrogen insertion inside the MnGa4 lattice can modulate the atomic distance and charge state, thereby ferrimagnetism can be achieved without destroying the structural configuration. 2D MnGa4-H crystal is high-quality and air-stable, demonstrating robust and stable room-temperature magnetism with a high Curie temperature above 620 K.

  • Chemical Potential Modulated Ultrahigh-Phase-Purity Growth of Ultrathin Transition Metal Boride Single Crystals
    Jingjing Si#, Jinqiu Yu#, Haihui Lan#, Lixin Niu#, Jingrui Luo, Yantao Yu, Linyang Li, Yu Ding, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 13 January 2023

    For the first time, we demonstrate a chemical potential-modulated strategy to realize the precise synthesis of various ultrahigh-phase-purity (approximately 100%) ultrathin TMB single crystals, and the precision in the phase formation energy can reach as low as 0.01 eV per atom. The ultrathin MoB2 single crystals exhibit an ultrahigh Young’s modulus of 517 GPa compared to other 2D materials.

  • Structure Modulation of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Chalcogenides: Recent Advances in Methodology, Mechanism and Applications
    Yao Xiao, Chengyi Xiong, Miao-Miao Chen*, Shengfu Wang, Lei Fu*, Xiuhua Zhang* First Pubulished: 25 November 2022

    In this review, we present a systematic and comprehensive overview of the structure modulation of TMDs, including point, linear and out-of plane structures, following and updating the conventional classification for silicon and related bulk semiconductors. Finally, we demonstrate challenges and prospects in the structure modulation of TMDs and forecast potential directions about what and how breakthroughs can be achieved.

  • Facet Engineering of Ultrathin Two-Dimensional Materials
    Linyang Li#, Yabei Xia#, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 4 August 2022

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the facet engineering of 2D materials, ranging from a basic understanding of facets and the corresponding approaches and the significance of facet engineering. We also propose current challenges and forecast future development directions including the establishment of a facet database, the fabrication of new 2D materials, the design of specific substrates, and the introduction of theoretical calculations and in situ characterization techniques.

  • Chemical Insights into Two-Dimensional Quantum Materials
    Jinglu Liu#, Yiran Ding#, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 18 May 2022

    It is crucial to understand and conclude the process of 2D material design and synthesis from chemical insights to further research the intrinsic quantum physics and better explore potential properties and applications of 2D quantum materials. In this review, we first summarize the recent advance of 2D quantum phenomena, then give the universal design paradigm from two aspects: element-dependence and phase-dependence, at last we propose different synthesis resolutions. We also summarize the challenges in this area and put forward feasible solution.

  • Emerging Liquid Metal Biomaterials: From Design to Application
    Luyang Wang, Runze Lai, Lichen Zhang, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 9 May 2022

    Liquid metals (LMs) with good biosafety, deformability, functionalizability and stimulus responsiveness have great potential in biomedicine. In this review, the advantages of LMs are presented. Recent advances in the design and application of LM-based biomaterials are comprehensively summarized to provide deep insights into structure-property relationships and guide their on-demand design and performance optimization for therapeutics, bioimaging, biosensors, and tissue repair.

  • Dual Self-Built Gating Boost Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
    Xiaohui Zhu#, Chenyang Wang#, Tingli Wang#, Haihui Lan, Yu Ding, Hu Shi, Lisi Liu, Haiwen Shi, Luyang Wang, Huiliu Wang, Yiran Ding, Yingshuang Fu, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu* First Pubulished: 27 Apirl 2022

    We report a design strategy, namely “dual self-built gating” to boost hydrogen evolution reaction. Taking ReS2 and WS2 as an example, the dual self-built gating induces electrons from WS2 to ReS2 directionally. The tailored electronic structure can balance the adsorption of intermediates and desorption of hydrogen synergistically, thus greatly promoting the intrinsic activity of active sites.

Cover more
  • Chemical Potential Modulated Ultrahigh-Phase-Purity Growth of Ultrathin Transition Metal Boride Single Crystals
    Jingjing Si#, Jinqiu Yu#, Haihui Lan#, Lixin Niu#, Jingrui Luo, Yantao Yu, Linyang Li, Yu Ding, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 27 January 2023

    This research demonstrates a chemical potential modulated strategy for the realization of ultrathin transition metal boride (TMB) single crystals with ultrahigh phase purity (approximately 100%). The uniform distribution of precursor ensures a very narrow compositing window that permits the monophasic nucleation and growth of ultrathin TMBs.

  • Exploring Interface Through Synchrotron Radiation Characterization Techniques: A Graphene Case
    Yiran Ding#, Haiwen Shi#, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 08 June 2022

    Graphene is an atomically thin material for which all atoms are exposed to the interfaces that need to be studied using a nondestructive and sensitive technique. In this review, we summarize and discuss that how to characterize these interfaces by synchrotron radiation techniques to understand the structure and property evolution of graphene.

  • General synthesis of 2D rare-earth oxide single crystals with tailorable facets
    Linyang Li#, Fangyun Lu#, Wenqi Xiong, Yu Ding, Yangyi Lu, Yao Xiao, Xin Tong, Yao Wang, Shuangfeng Jia, Jianbo Wang, Rafael G. Mendes, Mark H. Rümmeli, Shengjun Yuan, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 23 August 2021

    For the first time, we achieve the synthesis of a wide variety of high-quality 2D REO single crystals with tailorable facets via designing a hard-soft-acid-base couple for controlling the 2D nucleation of the predetermined facets and adjusting the growth mode and direction of crystals.

  • A Liquid Metal Reaction System for Advanced Material Manufacturing
    ​Mengqi Zeng#, Linyang Li#, Xiaohui Zhu, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 26 July 2021

    Based on the good solubility, layering property, rheological property and excellent conductivity, the liquid metal reaction system in the “Eight Trigrams Furnace” is constantly providing surprises for designing advanced materials including 2D materials and composite materials for a wide range of applications in electronics, photonics, and energy field.

  • In-Situ Investigation of the Motion Behavior of Graphene on Liquid Copper
    ​Luyang Wang#, Yu Ding#, Xiaozheng Wang, Runze Lai, Mengqi Zeng*, Lei Fu*
    First Pubulished: 08 July 2021

    In article number 2100334, Lei Fu, Mengqi Zeng and co-workers open the “black box” of the growth, movement and self-assembly of graphene on liquid metal via in-situ technique. Graphene can translate, rotate and spontaneously tend to be evenly distributed on liquid metal. This work offers an innovative way to explore the dynamic growth process and mechanism of 2D materials.

Book more
  • Liquid Metals: Properties, Mechanisms, and Applications
    412 Pages, 9 chapters
    Wiley-VCH Press, written by Lei Fu, Mengqi Zeng, published in 2022

    Liquid metals can flow freely like water at relatively low temperatures, thus changing the perception of metals as solid. Taking gallium (Ga) as an example, hold it in your hand for a while and, interestingly, it melts and turns into a silvery drop that rolls around in your hand. More interestingly, it can be encapsulated in carbon tubes to form the smallest thermometer in the world. This kind of fascinating materials bring people into a new world. Nowadays, liquid metals are emerging as a new cutting-edge material in the frontiers of science and technology and nurturing a revolution in both fundamental discovery and unconventional applications.

  • Synchrotron Radiation: From Discovery to Scientific Applications
    254 Pages, 6 chapters
    Science Press, written by Lei Fu, Mengqi Zeng, Jianhua He, published in 2022

    The main contents include synchrotron radiation generation, properties, experimental methods, application examples and development trends at home and abroad. This book can be used as a reference for researchers and postgraduates in universities and research institutes in the fields of materials science, chemistry, life science, physics, medicine, environmental science and other disciplines, as well as for researchers in various fields with synchrotron radiation device as the experimental platform. This book is especially suitable for researchers who are new to the field of synchrotron radiation.

  • Graphene from Basics to Applications
    Chapter 2, "The preparation of graphene", 70 Pages
    Chemical Industry Press, edited by Yunqi Liu et al., published in 2017

    This book presents an overview of graphene from rationale to applications, including basic concepts, theories, and principles. Hereinto, preparation methods, growth mechanisms, condensed matter structures, and graphene chemistry are described in detail. The book emphasizes electrical, optical and magnetic properties of graphene. Subsequently, the prospects and challenges of graphene in composite materials, energy materials, and industrial applications are systematically introduced. This book can be used as reference for senior undergraduates, postgraduates, and institute researchers in the fields of chemistry, materials, physics, and information.

Prof. Dr. Lei Fu
链接about Prof. Fu biography

Prof. Dr. Mengqi Zeng

Honored Students
  1. "Nano Star" of LAN

  2. Guanghui Cao, Jingjing Liang (2023); Linyang Li, Jinqiu Yu (2022); Jiaqian Zhang, Yiran Ding (2021); Kena Yang (2020); Jinxin Liu, Mengqi Zeng (2019); Wenjie Wang (2018); Tao Zhang, Mengqi Zeng (2016); Qin Zhang, Lei Fu (2015); Lifang Tan, Mengqi Zeng (2014); Jiao Wang (2013)

  3. "Hall of Fame" of Wuhan University

  4. Jiaqian Zhang (2022), Qin Zhang (2018), Mengqi Zeng (2017)

  5. "Academic Star" of Wuhan University

  6. Wenjie Wang (2018), Qin Zhang (2018), Mengqi Zeng (2015)

  7. Grand Prize of National "Challenge Cup"

  8. Chenxiao Wang, Xiaoyang Liang, Qiqi Zhang, Min Ju, Junlai Zuo, Ding Xu, Weiyin Chen, Zemian Ren (2017)

  9. National Scholarship (Postgraduate)

  10. Chenyang Wang, Yantao Yu (2022); Wenjie Wang, Luyang Wang (2019); Mengqi Zeng, Yao Xiao (2017); Lei Fu (2016); Lifang Tan, Tao Zhang (2015); Mengqi Zeng (2014)


We now can successfully synthesize various kinds of high-quality 2D atomic crystals with their property from semi-conductors, semi-metals, metals and superconductors. Many of them also exhibit wonderful magnetic and pyroelectric properties. The typical ones are listed as follows:

(1) Graphene and some other single element Xene, such as 2D Sb, Mo.

(2) Transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, WS2, WSe2, WTe2, ReS2, etc.

(3) Transition metal carbides, such as WC, Mo2C, etc.

(4) Metal oxides, such as SbO2, HfO2, etc.

(5) Metal phosphides, such as MoP, MnP, SnP, etc.

(6) III-V composites, such as BN, GaN, GaP, InSb, etc.

(7) Rare earth composites, such as CeO2, La2O3, etc.

(8) 2D heterostructures, such as Graphene/h-BN, MoS2/h-BN, WS2/ReS2, WC-Graphene, Mo2C-Graphene, etc.

(9) 2D high-entropy alloy.

We have explored some of them in the application of electronics, optoelectronics, energy conversion and storage devices, stimuli-responsive smart devices. We believe this is just the tip of the iceberg and looking forward to the cooperation with the experts in all possible new material related fields.


There are currently Postdoctoral positions available in our group, with joint support from Wuhan University and Sino-German Center for Research Promotion. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

(1) Development of controllable CVD methods for wafer-scale 2D atomic crystals and their heterostructures;

(2) Theoretical calculation and simulation of structure and property for 2D atomic crystals;

(3) Electronic, transport, optical and catalytic properties of 2D atomic crystals and their heterostructures;

(4) Novel applications in energy devices and flexible electronics;

Please send (1) a CV, (2) three representative publications over the past five years to Prof. Fu by email: leifu@whu.edu.cn.


Prof. Dr. Lei Fu
College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences,
The Institute For Advanced Studies,
Wuhan University
Wuhan 430072, China